20. Critical Success Elements
Jeffrey E. Pinto*
Dennis P. Slevin**
The project execution, involving the powerful development and introduction of projects inside the organization, reveals an ongoing obstacle for managers. The project implementation method is complex, usually necessitating simultaneous focus on a wide variety of man, budgetary, and technical factors. As a result, the organizational project manager is usually faced with a horrible job characterized by role excess, frenetic activity, fragmentation, and superficiality. Often the typical job * Helpings of this part were tailored from Dennis P. Slevin and Jeffrey K. Pinto, Balancing Strategy and Strategies in Job Implementation', Sloan Management Assessment, Fall, 1987, pp. 33-41, and Randall L. Schultz, Dennis G. Slevin, and Jeffrey K. Pinto, 'Strategy and Tactics in a Method Model of Task Implementation", Extremite, 16: three or more, May-June, 1987, pp. 34-46.
T Copyright O 1987 by Jeffrey K. Pinto and Dennis P. Slevin. ** Dennis P. Slevin is an Associate Professor of Business Administration at the University of Pittsburgh's Joseph Meters. Katz Graduate School of Business. He holds a B. A. in Math concepts from St Vincent College or university, a B. S. in Physics via M. I. T., a great M. S i9000. in Industrial Administration coming from Carnegie-Mellon, and a Ph. D. via Stanford College or university. He has already established extensive encounter as a collection manager, which include service while the CEO of four diverse companies, which in turn qualified him as a member in the Young Presidents' Organization. He presently is a director of a number of corporations, and consults broadly. He posts in numerous specialist journals, and it is co-editor of Implementing Procedures Research Manageinent Science; The Management of Organizational Design, Volumes I and II; and Producing Useful Knowledge. He provides written the pragmatic Executive Survival Manual for practicing managers.
$ Jeffrey K. Pinto is definitely Assistant Teacher of Firm Theory with the College of Business Operations, University of Cincinnati. This individual received his B. A. in History and B. H. in Business in the University of Maryland, Meters. B. A. and Ph. D. in the University of Pittsburgh. This individual has published several papers in a variety of professional journals on such issues as project management, rendering, instrument development, and exploration methodology.
manager has responsibility for good project results without adequate power, price range, or visitors to handle all of the elements essential for project accomplishment. Ln addition, projects in many cases are initiated in the context of a turbulent, unstable, and powerful environment. Consequently, the task manager will be well dished up by more info about all those specific elements critical to project success. The task manager needs the necessary tools to help him / her focus attention on important areas and set differential goals across distinct project factors. If it can be demonstrated that a couple of factors under the project manager's control can have a significant effect on project execution success, the project director will be better able to effectively cope with the many needs created by simply his job, channeling his energy more proficiently in looking to successfully implement the project under development.
This phase reports on the program of research which includes developed the foll'owing tools and/or concepts for the practicing task manager. Some ten empirically derived critical project setup success factors. A classification instrument-the Job Implementation Account (PIP) for measuring the ten elements.
A ten-factor model of the project implementation process.
Measures of the important elements of task Strategy-and Tactics. The effect of Strategy and Tactics upon project setup suecess. The effect of the project life pattern on the comparative importance of the critical success factors.
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