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Compiler Design

UNIT one particular

1 What is compiler?

Ans: - A compiler can be described as program that translates individual readable supply code in computer executable machine code. To do this effectively the human readable code must c omply with the format rules of whichever coding language it truly is written in. The compiler is only a plan and cannot fix the programs for you personally. If you buy the wrong thing, you have to correc t the syntax or it won't put together

2 review NFA and DFA?

Ans: DFA- solitary value move function is represented

- it consider more storage

- quantity of state is somewhat more

- it not support null move

-- backtracking is achievable

-dfa is definitely faster recognizer

NFA- multi value transition function can be represented

- it consider less memory space

- quantity of state is less

- it support null moves

-- backtrakin is achievable some cases

- nfa is usually slower recognizer

3 Define bootstrap and cross compiler?

Ans: -- Bootstrap: In computing, bootstrapping (from a classic expression " to pull one self up by simply one's bootstraps" ) is known as a technique by which a simple pc program triggers a more challenging system of programs. In the start-up process of a pc system, a little program (such as BIOS) initializes and tests that the basic requirement of hardware, peripherals and external memory equipment are linked. Cross compiler: A compiler that works on one pc but makes object code for a diverse caterogy of computer system. Cross compilers are used to generate software that can run on personal computers with a new structure or upon specialpurpose products that are not able to host their particular compilers. 4 Define expression lexeme routine?

Ans: - Token-A lexical token is actually a sequence of characters which can be treated like a unit in the grammar with the programming 'languages'.

Example of bridal party:

Type expression (id, num, real,... )

Punctuation bridal party (IF, emptiness, return,... )

Alphabetic bridal party (keywords)

Sort of non-tokens:

Remarks, preprocessor savoir, macros, blanks, tabs, newline,...

Lexeme-A lexeme is a series of heroes in the resource program that is matched by the pattern for a token.

For example , the design for the RELOP token contains six lexemes ( =, < >,, > =) hence the lexical analyzer should return a RELOP token to parser anytime it perceives any one of the half a dozen. Pattern-There can be described as set of strings in the type for which the sam e token can be produced because output. It of strings is defined by a rule called a routine associated with the expression. Regular expression are an essential notation intended for specifying patterns. For example , the pattern intended for the Pascal identifier symbol, id, can be: i g в†’ page (letter | digit)*. a few What is compilation? Describe phase of compiler with diagram. Compilation: - 1 the action or process of compiling.

2 a specific thing, especially an e book or record, compiled from different resources. Phase of compiler: - There are six phases a standard compiler will certainly implement. The reason why independent a compiler into six phases might be simplicity. Compiler design is thus packed with ``Divide and Conquer'' technique, component-level style, reusabililty and gratification optimization. Lexical Analysis

Format Analysis

Error Recovery

Opportunity Analysis

Type Analysis

Code Generation

Period

Output

Test

Programmer (source code

producer)

Source line

A=B+C;

Scanner (performs lexical analysis)

Token string

‘A', ‘=', ‘B', ‘+', ‘C', ‘; '

And mark table with names

Parser (performs syntax analysis

based upon the grammar of the

encoding language)

Parse tree or perhaps abstract

syntax tree

;

=

/\

A+

/\

BC

Semantic analyzer (type checking out,

etc)

Annotated parse shrub or

subjective syntax forest

Intermediate code generator

Three-address code, quads,

or RTL

int2fp N

t1

& t1 C t2

: sama dengan t2

A

Optimizer

Three-address code, quads,

or RTL

int2fp W

t1

+ t1 #2. 3 A

Code generator

Assembly code

MOVF #2. 3, r1

ADDF2 r1, r2

MOVF r2, A

Peephole windows optimizer

Assembly code

ADDF2 #2. 3, r2

MOVF r2, A

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