Presupposition and Entailment
Presupposition is exactly what the presenter assumes as the case prior to making an utterance. Entailment, which is not a pragmatic concept, is what logically uses from precisely what is asserted in the utterance. Loudspeakers have presuppositions while phrases, not audio speakers, have entailments. Take a look at the example beneath:
Jane's brother bought two apartments.
This kind of sentence presupposes that Jane exists and this she has a brother. The speaker can also hold the more specific presupposition that she has only a buddy and her brother has a lot of money. All of these presuppositions will be held by speaker and all of them could be wrong.
In pragmatics entailment is the romance between two sentences where the truth of one (A) requires the truth of the other (B). For instance , the phrase (A) The president was assassinated. requires (B) The president can be dead.
The concept of presupposition is often cured as the partnership between two propositions. In case below, we have a sentence that contains a proposition (p) and one more proposition (q), which is easily presupposed by any fan base. However , the speaker can make a sentence by simply denying the proposition (p), obtaining therefore the same presupposition (q).
Debora's cat can be cute. (p)
Debora has a cat. (q)
When I say that Debora' h cat is cute, this kind of sentence presupposes that Debora has a kitty. In В
Debora' t cat can be not pretty. (NOT p)
the same thing holds true, that is, it presupposes that she has a cat. This property of presupposition is generally identified as constancy underneath negation. Fundamentally, it means the presupposition of the statement will remain constant (i. e. still true) even when that statement is negated. В
Types of Presupposition
In the analysis of how speakers' assumptions are generally expressed, presupposition has been associated with the use of numerous words, terms and set ups. These linguistic forms are considered here as indicators of potential presupposition, which can only become real presupposition in contexts with speakers. The types of presupposition are:
1-Existential presupposition: it is the assumption of the existence of the organizations named by the speaker.
For example , when a loudspeaker says " Tom's car is new", we can presuppose that Mary exists and has a car.
2-Factive presupposition: it is the supposition that something is true due to the presence of some verbs such as " know" and " realize" and of terms involving glad, for example. Hence, when a speaker says that she did not realize an individual was unwell, we can presuppose that somebody is ill. Also, when ever she says " I'm happy it's overвЂќ, we can presuppose that it's more than.
3-Lexical presupposition: it is the supposition that, in using one particular word, the speaker may act as if perhaps another that means (word) will be understood. For example:
Andrew ceased running. (> > He used to operate. )
You are past due again. (> > You were past due before. )
In this case, the use of the expressions " stop" and " again" are taken to presuppose one more (unstated) idea.
4-Structural presupposition: it is the supposition associated with the utilization of certain keywords. For example , wh-question in English language are conventionally interpreted together with the presupposition that the information following your wh-form (e. g. when and where) is already known as the case.
Once did she travel to the united states? ( > > she traveled)
Exactly where did you buy the publication? (> > you bought the book)
The listener interprets that the data presented is usually necessarily true rather than only the presupposition in the person requesting the question.
5- Non- factive presupposition: costly assumption that something is not the case. For example , verbs like " dream", " imagine" and " pretend" are used while using presupposition that what follows is usually not true.
I dreamed that we was wealthy. (> > I am not rich)
We dreamed that we...